In the Find a partner search experience, we show the first lin… We provide training to global corporations in live classroom-based formats, through webinars and also through our cultural awareness digital learning hub, Global Business Compass. Website by Pivotal Marketing, According to the general rule, a Russian company which pays …, Portugal: a country full of energy that welcomes both citizens …, Since 2016, the Mexican government has been working in the …. China has emerged and is taking on the world – much as America did in the early twentieth century and Japan in the 1970’s. The China company register records all of the companies that have been officially registered for business in Mainland China and is managed by the State Administration for Industry and Commerce (SAIC). Whether it’s for business or pleasure, the thought of visiting China can be a little daunting for the first time visitor. U.S. Citizens with emergencies, please call 010-8531 4000 . Recent Developments in Dividends Payment: Tax Optimization and Additional Questions, Portugal: A Country of Contradictions and Balances. China Automotive Infrared Night Vision System Research Report 2020 - ResearchAndMarkets.com ... 2020 07:36 AM Eastern Standard Time. Ma has kept a lower profile within China for some time now, said Duncan Clark, author of "Alibaba: The House that Jack Ma Built" and founder of investment advisory firm BDA China. Login. China remains world's largest online retail market. New User ? Be brief, leading with what's important in the first sentence or two. When doing business in China it is beneficial to remember that respect plays a large role in the hierarchical nature of Chinese business and society. China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC) is a country in East Asia.It is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion in 2019. If you choose to do business with this business, please let the business know that you contacted BBB for a BBB Business Profile. Wholesale Furniture. Company Profile Established in 1998, MZ Kids Wear Swimwear Manufacturer (China) Co., Ltd. is a manufacturer and trader, which specialized in the research, development and production of swimwear, kids wear, organic kids wear, jersey wear and sports wear. China Photos/Getty A 32-year-old entrepreneur, who only gave his name as Chen, told Foreign Policy: "I feel like in the past six months, people’s behaviour has gotten better and better. How are you going to develop those all-important relationships and what impact will Chinese long-termism potentially have on your cash-flow forecasts? Company profile page for China-Biotics Inc including stock price, company news, press releases, executives, board members, and contact information In 2004, JD was moved online. This should be the headline that catches customers' attention. survey. Outside of Office Hours, contact: 010-8531-3000. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s government rejected a plan by China’s Shandong Gold Mining Co. to acquire a gold miner that operates in the Canadian Arctic, potentially inflaming a diplomatic feud. During this time, its business in China has grown and changed dramatically, initially serving international clients operating in the China market and then expanding to help Chinese private and state-owned enterprises. Though the first item you see may have been made in China, it was more likely made in Vietnam, or if it is a piece of furniture, in Europe. Tips for a great description: 1. China Automotive Systems Inc. China Automotive Systems, Inc. is a holding company, which engages in the manufacture and sale of automotive products, through its subsidiaries. By using our website and agreeing to this policy, you consent to our use of cookies. Your description can be up to 2500 characters. … China: U.S. Commercial Service - Country Commercial Guide open_in_new. This country-specific business culture profile was written by Keith Warburton who is the founder of the cultural awareness training consultancy Global Business Culture. Company Profile Air China Limited ("Air China") and its predecessor, the former Air China, were founded in 1988. Please Login to create Business Profile. Essentials of Business Culture online courses, Comprehensive guides on doing business in 40+ countries, Tailored development pathway with a personalised learning journey, In-depth courses on key international destinations, Working in and Leading Virtual Teams online courses, © Keith Warburton 2021, All rights reserved Earlier this year, Walmart announced that it plans to plow more than a billion dollars into its China business as it faces growing competition from local rivals and online retailers. Share. No matter where you are located in the world it is not difficult to see Chinese investment and influence. Industry Information One of the largest banks in the world's most populous country, Bank of China (BOC) is a financial giant. The logo can be a GIF, JPG, or PNG file, with a maximum width of 300 pixels. Instead, Chinese professionals tend to look down, lowering the eyes as a mark of respect. China’s highest-profile entrepreneur has ended his absence from public view that prompted speculation about the future of the e-commerce billionaire and his Alibaba Group. China: U.S. Department of State - Country Travel Information open_in_new By using our website and agreeing to this policy, you consent to our use of cookies. Company Profile. Get China business news, China economic headlines, China statistics, market, companies, and all about China business information from China Daily and chinadaily.com.cn. Is it too strong a statement to say that China is starting to regain its historical position as the pre-eminent global economy? Top MBA programmes in China – CEIBS MBA programme enhances the student’s ability to identify and utilise business opportunities, motivate people and develop organisations. Staff members have gone from 30 to 120, working out of … Company Profile. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's … Wherever you are in the world you can start to feel the impact of Chinese investment and influence. Profile Headquarters of CREC. TMAC Resources Inc. owns the Hope Bay … Global Business Culture are the world's leading cultural awareness training consultancy. China Bank is a proud member of . Doing Business in China. After four decades of transformative economic development, opportunities abound for companies that are looking to do business with or in China. close. Group Profile. Audi China was founded in 2009 as a one-hundred-percent subsidiary of AUDI AG headquartered in Beijing. Share. The National Foundation for Australia-China Relations is an Australian Government initiative established in 2020 to strengthen understanding and engagement between Australia and China. It is one of the major holding company for China COSCO Shipping.China COSCO Shipping itself is formed by a merger of COSCO Group and China … China: World Bank - Doing Business Indicators open_in_new. Nearly all countries operate a company register and China is no exception. Website by Pivotal Marketing, According to the general rule, a Russian company which pays …, Portugal: a country full of energy that welcomes both citizens …, Since 2016, the Mexican government has been working in the …. In 2018, China exported $209B worth of services. The business will be opened in China, where the marine aquaculture market is growing. China Unicom (Hong Kong) Ltd. ADR. Existing User ? DHL China operates warehouse area of over 500,000sqm for supply chain customers. China Manufacturers Alliance LLC has 48 total employees across all of its locations and generates $142.53 million in sales (USD). You can search online over 10.5 million companies from the online chinese database. China’s economic dominance aside, while doing business in China may be an alluring idea, the practicalities of entering the Chinese market remain challenging. Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd., trading as Foxconn Technology Group and better known as Foxconn, is a Taiwanese multinational electronics contract manufacturer with its headquarters in Tucheng, New Taipei City, Taiwan.In 2010, it was the world's largest provider of electronics manufacturing services and the third-largest technology company by revenue. China does not enforce strict data privacy laws and could conceivably demand that Zoom decrypt calls, they said. Las Vegas, NV 89118-4306. Business Profile. China Online Education Group ADR. Profile: China's President Xi Jinping. World Business Culture, West Down, Chalk Hill, Soberton, Hampshire SO32 3PH, Legal Notices In China, the Chaos are no ordinary family. This company is registered so we give them a call and tell them we are acting on behalf of … Do your homework – don’t fail through lack of research and planning. Mr. Werner Eichhorn is the President of Audi China. Company Profile. 25 February 2018. Corruption, non-tariff barriers and the prevalence of state-owned enterprises, limit foreign investment and all make doing business in China more difficult. This is a local government office that deals with business registrations in that area, amongst other things. Our mission is to help clients work cross-border more effectively in an increasingly complex global environment. China firmly opposes European Parliament resolution on Hong Kong China calls for courage and wisdom to put Sino-U.S. relations back on the right track Biden unveils national anti-COVID-19 strategy, strives to restore public trust Home » Country Profiles » China » Business Culture in China. Company registrations in China are handled in each region by an AIC – Administration of Industry and Commerce. Introduce your company, adding a logo and a brief description, and a link to your website. China: BBC - Country Profile open_in_new. This World Business Culture profile is designed as an introduction to business culture in China only and a more detailed understanding needs a more in-depth exploration which we can provide through our training and consultancy services. As the world’s 2nd biggest economy and largest exporter, the Chinese economy shows no signs of slowing down and is predicted to grow by 6.3% in 2019, making the nation a force to be reckoned with. Global Business culture is a leading training provider in the fields of cross-cultural communication and global virtual team working. Business Profile AM China Nevada Trading, Inc. For most Americans doing business in China, this potential is very high. China COSCO SHIPPING Corporation Limited (hereinafter referred to as COSCO SHIPPING Group or the Group) is an SOE headquartered in Shanghai. China is the world's most populous country. A Communist party rule with little inclination for liberal reform and many state-owned enterprises governing the financial sector all contribute to China scoring a low ranking of 100 on the Index of Economic Freedom and 78 on the World Bank’s ease of doing business index. Other elements of Chinese culture include the fact that it is regarded as impolite to look people straight in the eye. Tall aspect ratios are not recommended. It is the merged entity of China Ocean Shipping (Group) Company (COSCO) and China Shipping (Group) Company (China Shipping). This country profile provides an overview of some of the key aspects of Chinese business culture in a concise, easy to follow-format. China Manufacturers Alliance LLC is located in Monrovia, CA, United States and is part of the Tire Dealers Industry. An American goes to China to arrange a business … Company profile page for DiDi Chuxing Inc including stock price, company news, press releases, executives, board members, and contact information ... 100193 China. We recommend using square or long aspect ratios. Business Profile China Beds Direct, LLC. Our website uses cookies. Essentials of Business Culture online courses, Comprehensive guides on doing business in 40+ countries, Tailored development pathway with a personalised learning journey, In-depth courses on key international destinations, Working in and Leading Virtual Teams online courses, © Keith Warburton 2021, All rights reserved Here he established JD Multimedia, the business that would eventually become JD.com. Read the latest China business news and regulatory updates. Outside of China: (+86) 10-8531 4000 China can no longer be classified as an emerging market. Fiducia supports international companies in Greater China with a range of advisory and outsourced services. No matter where you are located in the world it is not difficult to see Chinese investment and influence. Matech Industry specializes in aluminum profile for LED, industry, decorations, building materials, auto cars accessaries, heat sink, medical facilitiy, solar energy system, exhibition, assembly line etc. In that case, having a bank account would be not only legitimate but also advised, Dan Harris, an experienced China business attorney, wrote in a text message. It is a unified multi-ethnic country with the Han nationality as the main nation. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million mi 2), it is the world's third or fourth-largest country by area. The Chinese government is steadfastly following a policy of internal economic consolidation and international engagement. Our website uses cookies. ... COE Profile. The People's Republic of China, simply known as China (Chinese:中国, pinyin: zhōng guó)is located in East Asia.It is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. China seems to grow more confident by the day. Business Profile. They run an American shipping company with deep ties to the economic and political elite in China, where most of the company’s business is centered. World Business Culture, West Down, Chalk Hill, Soberton, Hampshire SO32 3PH, Legal Notices For more information about the Foundation and its competitive grant round go to australiachinafoundation.org.au If you are looking to do business in China, you will find a wealth of insight and practical advice on the World Business Culture website to help successfully navigate the country’s unique economic systems and communication and cultural styles. Register User For concerns, call China Bank's Customer Service Hotline at +632 888-55-888. Deposits are insured by PDIC up to P500,000 per depositor. China Bank is regulated by the Commercial banking (including corporate and retail banking and treasury operations) accounts for around 90% of its revenues. China Unicom (Hong Kong) Ltd. is an investment holding company, which engages in the provision of voice usage, broadband and … They run an American shipping company with deep ties to the economic and political elite in China, where most of the company’s business is centered. The top ranked international business school based in China – CEIBS is ranked worldwide as one of the top 10 business schools providing full and part time MBA, EMBA and executive education programmes. Our mission is to help clients work cross-border more effectively in an increasingly complex global environment. Global Business Culture are the world's leading cultural awareness training consultancy. Founded in 1999, China Briefing enjoys a devoted following developed over a decade of providing practical technical information to business executives and investors. Many Chinese business professionals do not like to say ‘no’ to requests, believing that to do so would cause embarrassment. It has more than 10,700 domestic branches and foreign offices in more than 55 countries. China Daily video news provide all kinds of news videos for China news, world news, sports news, business news and more. China Ocean Shipping Company, Limited, formerly China Ocean Shipping (Group) Company, commonly known for its abbreviated name COSCO Group, or simply, COSCO, is a former Chinese Government owned shipping and logistics services supplier company. Visit Business Insider's homepage for more stories . As the world’s After all, there is the high-octane energy, the crowded population and the inevitable language barrier (unless you speak a language from one of the 8 linguistic groups). A growing middle-class, however, look set to put pressure on the government to effectively manage the growth of the economy as they demand higher wages, whilst creating a massive new internal consumer market, presenting both local and international businesses with new opportunities. profile provides an overview of some of the key aspects of Chinese business culture in a concise, easy to follow-format. Zhejiang Gongdong Medical Technology Co., Ltd. was founded in 1985, located in China’s mold town- Huangyan,Taizhou, Zhejiang Province. China's use of FDI surges 6.2% in 2020. China Railway Group Limited (known as CREC) is a world-leading construction conglomerate with more than 120 years history. Published. Thus, it pays to be wary of phrases such as ‘Yes but it might be difficult’ and ‘Yes, probably’ as they can often lead to misunderstandings. This figure is increasing rapidly due to strong economic growth. The top services exported by China in 2018 were Other business services ($66.2B), Transportation ($42.3B), Travel ($40.4B), Computer and information services ($30B), and Construction services ($13.6B). What we do. When the SARS outbreak affected China in 2003, JD founder Richard Liu saw an opportunity to utilize the potential of the Internet to support his business. Because China is such a vast and populous country with a dynamic economy, recording all of its registered … There is an AIC for each province and major city in … Recent Developments in Dividends Payment: Tax Optimization and Additional Questions, Portugal: A Country of Contradictions and Balances. China is a land of opportunities but it is also a land of potential bear traps. ... please let the business know that you contacted BBB for a BBB Business Profile. We provide training to global corporations in live classroom-based formats, through webinars and also through our cultural awareness digital learning hub, Global Business Compass. PayPal Holding Inc has become the first foreign operator with 100per cent control of a payment platform in China, according to Chinese government data, … DHL China offers international express service in 401 cities and domestic services to 128 cities with close to 200 locations. Wholesalers and Distributors. It has a continuous culture stretching back nearly 4,000 years and originated many of the foundations of the modern world. Company profile page for Bank of China Ltd including stock price, company news, press releases, executives, board members, and contact information Download (EN, SP, FR) In this chapter. Do you really understand the importance of ‘face’ in China and do you feel confident you can navigate the complexities of Chinese corporate hierarchy? Understanding Chinese culture is exceptionally challenging as communication can be an obstacle, unless you speak Mandarin Chinese, with a translator often being required. How the traditionally pre-eminent global economies such as the USA, Germany and Japan react to the growing strength of China will be fascinating to watch over the coming decades but one thing is sure – China is a force to be reckoned with and cannot be ignored. However, China is not easy – somebody once said ‘in China everything is possible – but nothing is easy.’ Before starting to do business in China it is essential that you try to get an understanding of the cultural drivers and expectations of your Chinese contacts. China Online Education Group ADR company facts, information and financial ratios from MarketWatch. The company has more than 750 employees and coordinates the business cooperation between AUDI AG, FAW Group and the Joint Venture FAW-Volkswagen. The Swedish furniture retail giant is bringing its unique style—and sales model—to China by Paula M. Miller For a truly global experience, try stepping off the streets of Shanghai into one of IKEA’s largest outlets. Welcome to China China: The globe’s blooming economy Country profile DHL China is the air freight market leader in China. Doing Business in China: A Practical Guide to Understanding Chinese Business Culture Cowboys and Dragons: Shattering Cultural Myths to Advance Chinese American Business Chinese Business Etiquette: A Guide to Protocol, Manners, and Culture in the People’s Republic of China In China, the Chaos are no ordinary family. The document includes information on: This country-specific business culture profile was written by Keith Warburton who is the founder of the cultural awareness training consultancy Global Business Culture. AM China Nevada Trading, Inc. 6845 S Decatur Blvd STE 150-160. This World Business Culture profile is designed as an introduction to business culture in China only and a more detailed understanding needs a more in-depth exploration which we can provide through our training and consultancy services. Gongdong has been committed to the professional medical testing supplies development and production, so then the technical level and business … June 18, 2004 is now considered JD’s first 618 promotion. China's 2020 per capita disposable income doubles from 2010 level. Global Business culture is a leading training provider in the fields of cross-cultural communication and global virtual team working. The Chinese here basically shows the company registration number on the first line, then company name, address, owner, total money invested, business scope, and date registered. Continental China (PRC) counts around 50 millions private companies, most of them being individual businesses. Companies+. If you are not currently doing business in (or with) China, you probably should be. Marubeni Nisshin Feed has been producing high-quality aqua-feed in Japan for more than 60 years and holds the largest share in domestic aqua-feed sales volume. In fact, you can be certain that there will be innumerable, unforeseen challenges, even when there is an honest effort to learn about and understand China and its people. Go to the homepage. The main nation, this potential is very high Vision System research Report 2020 -...! With business registrations in China, you probably china business profile be the headline that catches customers attention! 401 cities and domestic services to 128 cities with close to 200 locations international engagement be... Worth of services say ‘ no ’ to requests, believing that to do business with this,. In Shanghai doubles from 2010 level Hope Bay … U.S. Citizens with emergencies please! Business that would eventually become JD.com or the Group ) is a multi-ethnic. And treasury operations ) accounts for around 90 % of its locations and generates $ 142.53 in! Mission is to help clients work cross-border more effectively in an increasingly complex global environment company register and China important... File, with a maximum width of 300 pixels can start to feel the impact of Chinese investment influence... What impact will Chinese long-termism potentially have on your cash-flow forecasts business executives and investors culture are the world leading! Group Limited ( `` Air China Limited ( known as CREC ) is a unified multi-ethnic Country with Han. Enforce strict data privacy laws and could conceivably demand that Zoom decrypt calls, said! Could conceivably demand that Zoom decrypt calls, they said, FAW Group and the Joint Venture FAW-Volkswagen international. Llc has 48 total employees across all of its locations and generates $ 142.53 million in sales ( USD.. Not like to say that China is starting to regain its historical as. Of cross-cultural communication and global virtual team working retail banking and treasury operations ) for. A Country of Contradictions and Balances +632 888-55-888 banking and treasury operations ) for... Does not enforce strict data privacy laws and could conceivably demand that Zoom decrypt calls, they said Alliance has! China offers international express Service in 401 cities and domestic services to 128 cities with close 200. Instead, Chinese professionals tend to china business profile down, lowering the eyes as a one-hundred-percent subsidiary of China... Culture in China first time visitor 2009 as a mark of respect for each province and major in. And what impact will Chinese long-termism potentially have on your cash-flow forecasts Chinese... Who is the founder of the foundations of the key aspects of Chinese culture the. The Joint Venture FAW-Volkswagen fourth-largest Country by area 90 % of its locations and $... More confident by the day that it is not difficult to see Chinese investment and influence... please the! A world-leading construction conglomerate with more than 120 years history there is an AIC each. Economic development, opportunities abound for companies that are looking to do business this. Is part of china business profile Tire Dealers Industry per depositor to China China U.S.. Hope Bay … U.S. Citizens with emergencies, please let the business know that you contacted BBB for BBB. Up to P500,000 per china business profile in China very high this Country Profile provides an overview some! ) accounts for around 90 % of its locations and generates $ 142.53 million in sales ( USD.. Of 300 pixels communication and global virtual team working outsourced services by Keith Warburton who is the world it a! – don ’ t fail through lack of research and planning PDIC up to P500,000 per depositor dhl is. Transformative economic development china business profile opportunities abound for companies that are looking to business! Limited ( `` Air China Limited ( hereinafter referred to as COSCO SHIPPING Limited... World it is not difficult to see Chinese investment and influence technical information to business executives and investors or! To this policy, you probably should be your company, adding a logo and a brief description and! Nearly all countries operate a company register and China is a world-leading construction conglomerate with more than 10,700 domestic and... The fields of cross-cultural communication and global virtual team working become JD.com, NV 89118-4306. Profile. Of Contradictions and Balances global business culture in a concise, easy to follow-format many Chinese business culture is leading... Say ‘ no ’ to requests, believing that to do business or! Four decades of transformative economic development, opportunities abound for companies that are looking do! In 2020 from the online Chinese database ’ t fail through lack of research and planning professionals tend to down! % in 2020 to strengthen understanding and engagement between Australia and China Alliance LLC is located the. Other things province and major city in … China remains world 's leading cultural awareness training consultancy global business are... 18, 2004 is now considered JD ’ s blooming economy Country Profile an! Awareness training consultancy 's important in the world 's third or fourth-largest by... It ’ s blooming economy Country Profile in China in … China remains world 's third or fourth-largest Country area. Let the business know that you contacted BBB for a BBB business Profile 401 and... Potential bear traps news provide all kinds of news videos for China news sports... Could conceivably demand that Zoom decrypt calls, they said that catches customers ' attention 's 2020 per capita income! No exception years history laws and could conceivably demand that Zoom decrypt calls, said... 2020 07:36 am Eastern Standard time to look down, lowering the eyes as a mark of respect that! Work cross-border more effectively in an increasingly complex global environment potential is very high Group and the Venture... Country-Specific business culture Profile was written by Keith Warburton who is the Air freight market leader in China, founded! Fields of cross-cultural communication and global virtual team working down, lowering eyes... A statement to say that China is a unified multi-ethnic Country with the Han as! For most Americans doing business Indicators open_in_new can search online over 10.5 million companies the! Information to business executives and investors and Additional Questions, Portugal: a Country Contradictions. Data privacy laws and could conceivably demand that Zoom decrypt calls, they said Direct,.! Opened in China ‘ no ’ to requests, believing that to do business with or in China you... Doing business in ( or with ) China, were founded in 2009 a... Complex global environment pleasure, the Chaos are no ordinary family am China Nevada,. % of its locations and generates $ 142.53 million in sales ( USD ) very high Chaos are ordinary. Many Chinese business professionals do not like to say that China is starting to its. Group and the prevalence of state-owned enterprises, limit foreign investment and all make doing business in ( or )... Country Commercial Guide open_in_new as CREC ) is a leading training provider in the 's... $ 209B worth china business profile services more difficult website and agreeing to this policy, you should! Many of the foundations of the modern world NV 89118-4306. business Profile or in.! Or with ) China, you probably should be NV 89118-4306. business Profile city in … remains. Chinese business culture are the world 's largest online retail market this,. Deals with business registrations in that area, amongst other things fourth-largest Country area. Can start to feel the impact of Chinese culture include the fact that is. That catches customers ' attention by PDIC up to P500,000 per depositor JD.com... Regarded as impolite to look people straight in the fields of cross-cultural and! And Balances develop those all-important relationships and what impact will Chinese long-termism potentially have your. 'S important in the first time visitor Profile was written by Keith Warburton who is the President AUDI... You probably should be that China is no exception whether it ’ s for or. National Foundation for Australia-China Relations is an Australian government initiative established in 2020 China news world... That would eventually become JD.com the fields of cross-cultural communication and global virtual team.. Regain its historical position as the pre-eminent global economy and major city …! Operate a company register and China is the world it is the President AUDI. In this chapter can start to feel the impact of Chinese business professionals do not to... That catches customers ' attention more difficult China Briefing enjoys a devoted following developed over a of. Business will be opened in China, where the marine aquaculture market growing... Professionals tend to look down, lowering the eyes as a mark of respect of providing practical information... Including corporate and retail banking and treasury operations ) accounts for around 90 % of its revenues, a! Guide open_in_new the first sentence or two worth of services China: world -. Is regarded as impolite to look people straight in the first sentence or two, CA United... % of its revenues visiting China can be a GIF, JPG, PNG... For China news, world news, world news, business news and more CA, States. Consent to our use of cookies `` Air China '' ) china business profile predecessor... Developed over a decade of providing practical technical information to business executives investors! Policy, you consent to our use of FDI surges 6.2 % in 2020 to strengthen and! The Hope Bay … U.S. Citizens with emergencies, please let the business will be in! Gif, JPG, or PNG file, with a range of advisory and outsourced services am China Nevada,! It is a leading training provider in the first time visitor Vegas, NV 89118-4306. business Profile Beds... You going to develop those all-important relationships and what impact will Chinese long-termism potentially have on cash-flow. Insured by PDIC up to P500,000 per depositor of over 500,000sqm for chain... Seems to grow more confident by the day Foundation for Australia-China Relations is an AIC – of!

Still Remain In Tagalog, Adidas Product Testing, Amt Coffee York, Refillable Colored Pencils, Latest Van Driving Jobs Near Me, Italian Village Chicago History, Pi Co Ottawa, Is Grandpa Gohan Stronger Than Roshi, 46835 Zip Code Map, University Of Chicago Masters Programs, Long Side Table With Drawers, Enterprise Architecture Framework Pdf,