There are four Vedas- Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda. [7][9][10] Some scholars add a fifth category – the Upasanas (worship). Biswas et al (1989), Cosmic Perspectives, Cambridge University Press. Several authors refer to the Chinese Buddhist Monk I-Tsing, who visited India in the 7th century to retrieve Buddhist texts and gave examples of mnemonic techniques used in India: Staal: [this tradition of oral transmission is] "by far the more remarkable [than the relatively recent tradition of written transmission], not merely because it is characteristically Indian and unlike anything we find elsewhere, but also because it has led to scientific discoveries that are of enduring interest and from which the contemporary West still has much to learn.". Hinduism is the third-largest religion behind Christianity and Islam. [190] The third hymn is a mutual marriage pledge, between the bride and groom, by which the two bind themselves to each other. Whence, whence this creation sprang? The Rigveda is the first and most important Veda. The. [202], The six subjects of Vedanga are phonetics (Śikṣā), poetic meter (Chandas), grammar (Vyākaraṇa), etymology and linguistics (Nirukta), rituals and rites of passage (Kalpa), time keeping and astronomy (Jyotiṣa). [68] Due to the ephemeral nature of the manuscript material (birch bark or palm leaves), surviving manuscripts rarely surpass an age of a few hundred years. [note 1] Witzel notes that it is the Vedic period itself, where incipient lists divide the Vedic texts into three (trayī) or four branches: Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva. He is also credited with compiling Vedas into four (Rik, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Vedas). [174][175], The Artharvaveda Samhita is the text 'belonging to the Atharvan and Angirasa poets. [21][22][23] The mantras, the oldest part of the Vedas, are recited in the modern age for their phonology rather than the semantics, and are considered to be "primordial rhythms of creation", preceding the forms to which they refer. [42][160] While its earliest parts are believed to date from as early as the Rigvedic period, the existing compilation dates from the post-Rigvedic Mantra period of Vedic Sanskrit, between c. 1200 and 1000 BCE or "slightly later," roughly contemporary with the Atharvaveda and the Yajurveda. There are over 20,000 mantras in all vedas combined. The oldest part of the Rig Veda Samhita was orally composed in north-western India (Punjab) between c. 1500 and 1200 BC,[note 1] while book 10 of the Rig Veda, and the other Samhitas were composed between 1200-900 BCE more eastward, between the Yamuna and the Ganges, the heartland of Aryavarta and the Kuru Kingdom (c. 1200 – c. 900 BCE). Of the 18 major texts, six are Sattvic Puranas glorifying Vishnu; six are Rajasic and glorifying Brahma; and six are Tamasic and they glorifying Shiva. Paul Kuritz (1988), The Making of Theatre History, Prentice Hall. Sukumar Dutt (1988) [First published in 1962]. a) (i)Vedas: It is derived from ‘Vid’, to know, means knowledge par … –. [37][38] Each regional Vedic shakha (school) has its own operating manual-like Brahmana text, most of which have been lost. [184][185] The text, states Kenneth Zysk, is one of oldest surviving record of the evolutionary practices in religious medicine and reveals the "earliest forms of folk healing of Indo-European antiquity". PT Raju (1985), Structural Depths of Indian Thought, State University of New York Press. Griffith's introduction mentions the recension history for his text. "Divya Prabandha", for example Tiruvaymoli, is a term for canonical Tamil texts considered as Vernacular Veda by some South Indian Hindus. The Veda begins with a small book addressed to Agni, Indra, Soma and other gods, all arranged according to decreasing total number of hymns in each deity collection; for each deity series, the hymns progress from longer to shorter ones, but the number of hymns per book increases. "[111] Yāska (4th c. BCE[112]) wrote the Nirukta, which reflects the concerns about the loss of meaning of the mantras,[note 13] while Pāṇinis (4th c. BCE) Aṣṭādhyāyī is the most important surviving text of the Vyākaraṇa traditions. In other parts, they show evolution of ideas, such as from actual sacrifice to symbolic sacrifice, and of spirituality in the Upanishads. [160] A melody in the song books corresponds to a verse in the arcika books. [168] Unlike the Samaveda which is almost entirely based on Rigveda mantras and structured as songs, the Yajurveda samhitas are in prose and linguistically, they are different from earlier Vedic texts. Rigveda manuscripts were selected for inscription in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2007. "[79] Houben and Rath note that the Vedic textual tradition cannot simply be characterized as oral, "since it also depends significantly on a memory culture. These hymns were recited and passed from one generation to the next until many centuries later, they were finally written down. Multiple recensions are known for each of the Vedas. The early Buddhist texts are also generally believed to be of oral tradition, with the first Pali Canon written many centuries after the death of the Buddha. For other uses, see, Manuscripts of the Vedas are in the Sanskrit language, but in many regional scripts in addition to the, Chronology, transmission and interpretation, It is certain that the hymns of the Rig Veda post-date, For a table of all Vedic texts see Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and, The Vedic Sanskrit corpus is incorporated in, "As a skilled craftsman makes a car, a singer I, Mighty One! Mimamsa scholar Sayanas (14th c. CE) major Vedartha Prakasha[note 18] is a rare[113] commentary on the Vedas, which is also referred to by contemporary scholars. [13][25], The Sanskrit word véda "knowledge, wisdom" is derived from the root vid- "to know". The most notable of the smritis are the itihasa (epics). But the Tamil Naan Marai mentioned in Tholkappiam isn't Sanskrit Vedas. Ramayana nad mahabharata are the two greatest EPICS. Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. [131][note 21], The four Vedas were transmitted in various śākhās (branches, schools). [11][12] The texts of the Upanishads discuss ideas akin to the heterodox sramana-traditions. Who can here proclaim it? [101][102], The Vedas were written down only after 500 BCE,[103][68][21] but only the orally transmitted texts are regarded as authoritative, given the emphasis on the exact pronunciation of the sounds. "[96] In the Brahmanical perspective, the sounds have their own meaning, mantras are considered as "primordial rhythms of creation", preceding the forms to which they refer. [138][139], Prodigious energy was expended by ancient Indian culture in ensuring that these texts were transmitted from generation to generation with inordinate fidelity. There are twenty two + Avatars (incarnations) of Vishnu in the Bhagavatha Purana. There are 18 Maha Puranas (Great Puranas) and 18 Upa Puranas (Minor Puranas), with over 400,000 verses. The Vedangas developed towards the end of the vedic period, around or after the middle of the 1st millennium BCE. [238] English translations of the Samhitas were published in the later 19th century, in the Sacred Books of the East series edited by Müller between 1879 and 1910. The first versions of the various Puranas were likely composed between the 3rd- and 10th-century CE. [106], The Vedas, Vedic rituals and its ancillary sciences called the Vedangas, were part of the curriculum at ancient universities such as at Taxila, Nalanda and Vikramashila. [70] Witzel suggests that attempts to write down the Vedic texts towards the end of 1st millennium BCE were unsuccessful, resulting in smriti rules explicitly forbidding the writing down of the Vedas. [92][94] According to Staal, as referenced by Holdrege, though the mantras may have a discursive meaning, when the mantras are recited in the Vedic rituals "they are disengaged from their original context and are employed in ways that have little or nothing to do with their meaning. Overview of Hinduism : Vedas, Upanishads, Purana, Ithihasa explained. "[126] Mookerji refers to Sayana as stating that "the mastery of texts, akshara-praptī, is followed by artha-bodha, perception of their meaning. [187], The Brahmanas are commentaries, explanation of proper methods and meaning of Vedic Samhita rituals in the four Vedas. [154], The Rigveda is structured based on clear principles. Greg Bailey (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman), Routledge. [193], The Aranyakas layer of the Vedas include rituals, discussion of symbolic meta-rituals, as well as philosophical speculations. [84] This provided an additional visual confirmation, and also an alternate means to check the reading integrity by the audience, in addition to the audible means. [114], Yaska and Sayana, reflecting an ancient understanding, state that the Veda can be interpreted in three ways, giving "the truth about gods, dharma and parabrahman. [44][201], Aranyakas are sometimes identified as karma-kanda (ritualistic section), while the Upanishads are identified as jnana-kanda (spirituality section). Veda, Upanishads and Puranas There are about 1.1 billion followers of Hinduism in the world. How many Vedas are there? (eds. [82] According to Staal, criticising the Goody-Watt hypothesis "according to which literacy is more reliable than orality,"[86] this tradition of oral transmission "is closely related to Indian forms of science," and "by far the more remarkable" than the relatively recent tradition of written transmission. There are several Holy Scriptures of the Hindus among them are the Vedas, Upanishads & the Puranas. [89] Sudhakar Malaviya and VG Rahurkar state the connection is closer in that the Puranas are companion texts to help understand and interpret the Vedas. [note 7] Marai literally means "hidden, a secret, mystery". 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"[122] According to Galewicz, Sayana saw the purpose (artha) of the Veda as the "artha of carrying out sacrifice," giving precedence to the Yajurveda. [153], The books were composed by poets from different priestly groups over a period of several centuries between c. 1500 and 1200 BC,[note 1] (the early Vedic period) in the Punjab (Sapta Sindhu) region of the northwest Indian subcontinent. "[note 15] Holdrege notes that there are scarce commentaries on the meaning of the mantras, in contrast to the number of commentaries on the Brahmanas and Upanishads, but states that the lack of emphasis on the "discursive meaning does not necessarily imply that they are meaningless. For 1,028 hymns and 10,600 verses and division into ten mandalas, see: For characterization of content and mentions of deities including Agni, Indra, Varuna, Soma, Surya, etc. [186] Many books of the Atharvaveda Samhita are dedicated to rituals without magic, such as to philosophical speculations and to theosophy. [176], The Atharvaveda is sometimes called the "Veda of magical formulas",[182] an epithet declared to be incorrect by other scholars. was composed in its written form around 1500 BC – 1200 BC. The first versions of the Puranas were likely to be composed between 3rd – 10th Century AD. "[74], The emphasis in this transmission[note 9] is on the "proper articulation and pronunciation of the Vedic sounds," as prescribed in the Shiksha,[76] the Vedanga (Vedic study) of sound as uttered in a Vedic recitation,[77][78] mastering the texts "literally forward and backward in fully acoustic fashion. [20][note 6]. "[80] The Vedas were preserved with precision with the help of elaborate mnemonic techniques,[21][22][23] such as memorizing the texts in eleven different modes of recitation (pathas),[70] using the alphabet as a mnemotechnical device,[81][82][note 10] "matching physical movements (such as nodding the head)[disputed – discuss] with particular sounds and chanting in a group"[83] and visualizing sounds by using mudras (hand signs). This is not to be confused with the homonymous 1st and 3rd person singular perfect tense véda, cognate to Greek (ϝ)οἶδα (w)oida "I know". The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts", Sketch of the Historical Grammar of the Rig and Atharva Vedas, On the History and the Present State of Vedic Tradition in Nepal, An Enlarged Electronic Version of Bloomfield's A Vedic Concordance, Poetry of different cultures and languages, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vedas&oldid=990777172, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing Sanskrit-language text, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with disputed statements from May 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Any text considered as "connected to the Vedas" or a "corollary of the Vedas", The texts considered "Vedic" in the sense of "corollaries of the Vedas" are less clearly defined, and may include numerous post-Vedic texts such as the later. Magic, such as Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma [ 186 ] books. Incarnations ) of Vishnu in the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Indian literature that cover wide... 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