[204][205][206] The International Coalition to Stop Crimes Against Humanity in North Korea (ICNK) estimates that over 10,000 people die in North Korean prison camps every year. [285] Written language uses only the chosŏn'gŭl (Hangul) phonetic alphabet, developed under Sejong the Great (1418–1450). [271] Non-communicable diseases risk factors in North Korea include high rates of urbanization, an aging society, and high rates of smoking and alcohol consumption amongst men. [396] Sea of Blood is the most widely performed of the Five Great Operas: since its premiere in 1971, it has been played over 1,500 times,[397] and its 2010 tour in China was a major success. Soviet general Terentii Shtykov recommended the establishment of the Soviet Civil Authority in October 1945, and supported Kim Il-sung as chairman of the Provisional People's Committee for North Korea, established in February 1946. [280], The 2008 census listed the entire population as literate. Juche eventually replaced Marxism–Leninism entirely by the 1980s,[129] and in 1992 references to the latter were omitted from the constitution. [349], Transport infrastructure includes railways, highways, water and air routes, but rail transport is by far the most widespread. In September 1946, South Korean citizens rose up against the Allied Military Government. [308] Tourism has been a growing sector for the past decade. It is influenced by styles and genres from around the world, such as experimental, rock, jazz, gospel, hip hop, R&B, reggae, electronic dance, folk, country, and classical on top of its traditional Korean music roots. K-pop (short for Korean pop; Korean: 케이팝) is a genre of popular music originating in South Korea. His youngest son Kim Jong-un was announced as his successor. Korean resistance groups known as Dongnipgun (Liberation Army) operated along the Sino-Korean border, fighting guerrilla warfare against Japanese forces. With an area of 99,678 km² the country is about the size of Iceland, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. [70] In United States policymaking, North Korea was considered among the Captive Nations. [173], The Korean Demilitarized Zone with South Korea remains the most heavily fortified border in the world. After the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II in 1945, the Korean Peninsula was divided into two zones along the 38th parallel, with the northern half of the peninsula occupied by the Soviet Union and the southern half by the United States. The two-letter country abbreviation for South Korea is KR, the three-letter code is KOR. [n 4][162][163] As of September 2017, France and Estonia are the last two European countries that do not have an official relationship with North Korea. [292][293] Chondoism ("Heavenly Way") is an indigenous syncretic belief combining elements of Korean shamanism, Buddhism, Taoism and Catholicism that is officially represented by the WPK-controlled Chondoist Chongu Party. [401] North Koreans also listen to K-pop which spreads through illegal markets. Systematic inefficiency began to arise around 1960, when the economy shifted from the extensive to the intensive development stage. "Kim Jong Un is skirting sanctions and pursuing this energy strategy to keep North Korea afloat", "North Korea to Utilize Science and Technology to Overcome Its Energy Crisis", "North Korea Adopts Renewable Energy Law", "Progress in North Korea's Renewable Energy Production", "Activity Seen at North Korean Nuclear Plant", "High Speed Rail and Road Connecting Kaesong-Pyongyang-Sinuiju to be Built", "Cars on Pyongyang streets can tell us a lot about the country", "North Korea to Become Strong in Science and Technology by Year 2022", N. Korea moves to develop cutting-edge nanotech industry, "Two Koreas can cooperate in chemistry, biotech and nano science: report", "High-Tech Development Zones: The Core of Building a Powerful Knowledge Economy Nation", ". The country is bordered to the north by China and by Russia along the Amnok (known as the Yalu in Chinese) and Tumen rivers, and to the south by South Korea, with the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) separating the two. https://www.abbreviations.com/North%20Korea. [408], Government policies towards film are no different than those applied to other arts—motion pictures serve to fulfill the targets of "social education". The most worthless "country" in the world. [152] Initially, North Korea had diplomatic ties only with other communist countries, and even today, most of the foreign embassies accredited to North Korea are located in Beijing rather than in Pyongyang. The exotic settings of the stories give authors more freedom to depict cyberwarfare, violence, sexual abuse and crime, which are absent in other genres. Soju liquor is the best-known traditional Korean spirit. North Korea A country of northeast Asia on the Korean Peninsula. Comments, questions, and permission to cite should be directed to the author. It has approximately one million personnel divided into 80 infantry divisions, 30 artillery brigades, 25 special warfare brigades, 20 mechanized brigades, 10 tank brigades and seven tank regiments. The first of these is the State Affairs Commission of North Korea, which acts as "the supreme national guidance organ of state sovereignty". [117], Executive power is vested in the Cabinet of North Korea, which has been headed by Premier Kim Dok-hun since 14 August 2020. [99] The country contains three terrestrial ecoregions: Central Korean deciduous forests, Changbai Mountains mixed forests, and Manchurian mixed forests. Kim Jong-il was often the center of attention throughout ordinary life. [362], Under its "constructing a powerful knowledge economy" slogan, the state has launched a project to concentrate education, scientific research and production into a number of "high-tech development zones". [125] Its core tenets are economic self-sufficiency, military self-reliance and an independent foreign policy. There are 63 burial mounds in the tomb group, with clear murals preserved. [181] On 4 October 2007, South Korean president Roh Moo-hyun and Kim Jong-il signed an eight-point peace agreement. Tieni presente che l'abbreviazione di NK è ampiamente utilizzata in settori come quello bancario, informatico, educativo, finanziario, governativo e sanitario. A great majority of the population lives in the plains and lowlands. [217], The Ministry of People's Security (MPS) maintains most law enforcement activities. According to a United Nations Environmental Programme report in 2003, forest covers over 70 percent of the country, mostly on steep slopes. Officially the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, North Korea is a country located in Eastern Asia, bordering 3 countries – China, Russia and South Korea. [191], North Korea is widely accused of having perhaps the worst human rights record in the world. [203], The security apparatus is very extensive,[223] exerting strict control over residence, travel, employment, clothing, food and family life. [127][128], Juche was initially promoted as a "creative application" of Marxism–Leninism, but in the mid-1970s, it was described by state propaganda as "the only scientific thought... and most effective revolutionary theoretical structure that leads to the future of communist society". [298] The highest status is accorded to individuals descended from those who participated with Kim Il-sung in the resistance against Japanese occupation during and before World War II and to those who were factory workers, laborers, or peasants in 1950. [72] However, by the 1980s, the economy had begun to stagnate; it started its long decline in 1987 and almost completely collapsed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, when all Soviet aid was suddenly halted. [363] The Miraewon network of electronic libraries was established in 2014 under similar slogans. The main deficiencies of higher education are the heavy presence of ideological subjects, which comprise 50% of courses in social studies and 20% in sciences,[281] and the imbalances in curriculum. Winters bring clear weather interspersed with snow storms as a result of northern and northwestern winds that blow from Siberia. [231] They are equipped with 3,700 tanks, 2,100 armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles,[232] 17,900 artillery pieces, 11,000 anti-aircraft guns[233] and some 10,000 MANPADS and anti-tank guided missiles. [308] In an attempt to recover from the collapse, the government began structural reforms in 1998 that formally legalized private ownership of assets and decentralized control over production. [182] The same year, North Korea revalued the North Korean won, which held greater value than its South Korean counterpart. [261] Domestic food production almost recovered to the recommended annual level of 5.37 million tons of cereal equivalent in 2013,[262] but the World Food Program reported a continuing lack of dietary diversity and access to fats and proteins. Land controlled by North Korea shown in dark green; land claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green. [399] Improved relations with South Korea following the 2000 inter-Korean summit caused a decline in direct ideological messages in pop songs, but themes like comradeship, nostalgia and the construction of a powerful country remained. [350] North Korea connects with the Trans-Siberian Railway through Rajin. DPNK - North Korea. . It covers an area of 120,540 square kilometers (46,541 sq mi). Journalists, C. T. (25 April 2017). [216] Political prisoners are sent to labor camps, while criminal offenders are incarcerated in a separate system. North Korea: NK: North Korea: KP: North Korea: NKFA: North Korea Freedom Act: NKA: North Korean Army: NKPA: North Korean People’s Army: NKW: North Korean Won: KPW: North Korean Won: OSK: Optical Society of Korea: OKA: Organization for Korea Atomic Energy Awareness: OBK: Outward Bound Korea: OKF: Overseas Koreans Foundation: PUCK: Pen User Club in Korea: PDRK North Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, D.P.R.K., DPRK (noun) a communist country in the northern half of the Korean Peninsula; established in 1948. see more ». "[29][30] The government, however, admitted some human rights issues related to living conditions and stated that it is working to improve them. [435] Successful Olympians receive luxury apartments from the state in recognition for their achievements. [71], Recovery from the war was quick—by 1957 industrial production reached 1949 levels. Conclusions and recommendations", "North Korea defends human rights record in report to UN", "North Korea slams U.N. human rights report because it was led by gay man", "KCNA Commentary Slams Artifice by Political Swindlers", "Administrative Population and Divisions Figures (#26)", "Terenti Shtykov: the other ruler of nascent N. Korea", "U.S.: N. Korea Boosting Guerrilla War Capabilities", "The Destruction and Reconstruction of North Korea, 1950–1960", United States Army Center of Military History, "North Korea ends mourning for Kim Il Sung", "U.S.: Test Points to N. Korea Nuke Blast", "North Korea Nuclear Test Confirmed by U.S. Intelligence Agency", "S. Korea to toughen rules of engagement against N. Korean attack", "Lee Myung Bak Group Accused of Scuttling Dialogue and Humanitarian Work", "North Korean leader Kim Jong Il, 69, has died", "Trump warns North Korea of 'fire and fury, "N Korea promises Guam strike plan in days", "Delegation visit shows N. Korea can take 'drastic' steps to improve relations: MOU". Abbreviations.com. Some scholars believe that the 1956 August incident demonstrated independence. approx. Wind power is projected to satisfy 15% of the country's total energy demand under this strategy. [352] Only 2% of the freight capacity is supported by river and sea transport, and air traffic is negligible. Acronym or abbreviation that hits you anywhere on the population lives in the Taebaek Range, extends... Fare clic per vedere ciascuno di essi civilizations beyond Korea, the two Koreas should seek separate in... Coverage is in place Il-sung Stadium, and Roger Cavazos: North Korea was considered among the Captive.. Camps can be short-term reeducation zones or `` military first '' a `` folk '' spirit have been as! In 2013 runners from around the world [ 248 ] in 2012 ]! 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